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When someone says they are playing a minor scale, they are normally talking about aeolian mode. However, Dorian and Phrygian are also considered “minor” in nature, with only small adjustments away from aeolian mode.

A basic minor chord or “Triad” consist of the first, third and fifth notes from the associated minor scale. This is equivalent to playign the same major scale, but flattening the third by one semitone.

Minor chords and scales are generally thought of as being sad in nature and will normally instil a sense of longing or unhappiness.